The male factor in Infertility is of equal importance to the female element. In this case, the diagnosis also begins with a thorough interview related to lifestyle, health history, and previous fertility. The doctor of semen test Lahore may also ask about possible exposure of the genitals to toxic substances or heat that harm the functioning of the testicles.
A thorough interview allows you to determine infertility risk factors, such as the occurrence of endocrine diseases (e.g., diabetes), venereal diseases or cancer, chronic pharmacological treatment, erectile dysfunction, the use of stimulants, or obesity.
The next step in the diagnosis will be the assessment of secondary sex characteristics (including body and genital structure and hair distribution), semen analysis, and measurement of sex hormones – primarily testosterone and FSH. The tests may be supplemented with a urine test, ultrasound, and tests for sperm antibodies or computer analysis of semen. These tests identify possible causes of infertility related to abnormal sperm production, abnormal sperm morphology or motility, structural defects, and possible obstruction.
In addition, it is possible to perform genetic tests to detect the most common genetic causes of male infertility. The assessment of the karyotype may reveal various inversions or translocations of autosomal chromosomes or, most often, an extra X chromosome – Klinefelter syndrome. This disorder results in less masculine sex characteristics and almost always infertility. 10-15% of patients with azoospermia (no sperm in the semen) or oligospermia (low sperm count) have a microdeletion of the AZF region on the Y chromosome.
This gene is responsible for sperm production. The gene mutation is a common cause of infertilityCFTR, which is responsible for cystic fibrosis. Men with this mutation may have obstruction of the vas deferens or even their congenital absence. Thus, infertility will occur despite adequate sperm production.
Surgical treatment of infertility
In many cases, surgery can be an effective infertility treatment. They are used for obstruction of the fallopian tubes (hydro mas or adhesions of the fallopian tubes), uterine fibroids, uterine septa, intrauterine adhesions.peritoneal endometriosis, removal of endometrial cysts, and polycystic ovary syndrome if it does not respond to stimulation of ovulation. On the other hand, in the case of men, varicoceles of the spermatic cord are surgically removed, semen ducts are cleared, congenital disabilities of the genital organs are eliminated, and tumors are removed.
Pharmacological treatment of infertility
Treatment of infertility through pharmacotherapy may involve the induction of ovulation and hormonal substitution to compensate for endocrine disorders.
Clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins are most often used in the pharmacological induction of ovulation. Before introducing this type of treatment, it is recommended to normalize body weight (both in underweight and overweight women). Some causes in men (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) and women (e.g., POF, ovarian dysgenesis) require supplementation with appropriate sex hormones.
Pharmacological and dietary treatment of coexisting thyroid, diabetes, or celiac disease will also be appropriate. Bringing your health into balance can help improve fertility.
Medically assisted reproductive methods
If surgical or pharmacological methods of infertility treatment are not effective enough or impossible, one of the methods of medically assisted reproduction can be used. The primary techniques are insemination and in vitro fertilization.
Sperm insemination can be intrauterine, intratubal or cervical. It consists in collecting sperm from the partner (e.g., from the testicles or epididymis) and injecting them directly into a specific place in the woman’s reproductive tract. For example, this technique is used, e.g., in women producing anti-sperm antibodies (found in the vagina), endometriosis (with ineffective stimulation of ovulation), or in men with Azoospermia treatment Lahore if the cause is obstruction of the ways leading out sperm. If a man has inhibited spermatogenesis, donor sperm can be used.
Other methods supporting infertility treatment
When treating infertility, the body as a whole must be taken into account. Many couples may benefit from psychological, dietary, or sexological help. Particular attention should be paid to the fight against abnormal body weight, addictions, and stress. Proper nutrition, moderate physical activity, relaxation techniques, and prevention of depression or possible partner problems are essential steps in reducing the difficulty of getting pregnant.